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I know we knew theses were complex machines, but looking at this ID.4 document really show how many network and systems there are in the car.

This is for the ID.4 but I have to assume the Volvo is similar in complexity.



1105

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And this logical diagram of how the AAOS interacts with other components.

1104
 
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Vard Antinyan, a software quality expert at Volvo Cars who has written extensively about software and system complexity, explains that as of 2020, “Volvo has a superset of about 120 ECUs from which it selects to create a system architecture present within every Volvo vehicle. Altogether, they comprise a total of 100 million lines of source code.” This source code, Antinyan says, “contains 10 million conditional statements as well as 3 million functions, which are invoked some 30 million places in the source code.”
From this great article about the ever-increasing complexity of car software:
How Software Is Eating the Car - IEEE Spectrum
 

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The use of a separate safety-critical OS and a graphics compositor controlled by that OS are interesting.
This is common in safety rated systems - like industrial robots. The last priority is displaying the data to the squishy human who is slow to respond with a greasy finger. First priority is always safety interrupts.
 
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